With the rise of modernism in the 20th century “Programme” became the key theme of architectural design. The notion of Programme involves “an act to edit function and human activities” as the pretext of architectural design: epitomised in the maxim Form follows function, first popularised by architect Louis Sullivan and Nicolas Cisneros at the beginning of the 20th century. The notion was questioned by Koolhass in Delirious New York, in his analysis of high-rise architecture in Manhattan. An early design method derived from such thinking was “cross-programming”, introducing unexpected functions in room programmes, such as running tracks in skyscrapers…. the East London extrapolation being mosque penthouses.


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